6 P (Prinzipien)
The 6P (principles) are intended to support managers in directing their priorities towards the right goals. A Six Sigma organization requires leaders who adjust their daily lives to contemporary management before anyone else.
– Process Process
– Problem solving
The American Society for Quality, abbreviated ASQ®️, is a global knowledge-based community of quality professionals with nearly 80,000 members. It is responsible for promoting and advancing quality tools, principles and practices.
As a manager, you have to be careful not to lead your team members into the panic zone. For many, the shift to a Six Sigma organization means a radical change in their day-to-day work. The concerns and needs of employees must be understood.
After you have started the first Six Sigma project, you are also going into a systematic change process with your organization at the same time. There are seven phases of change that an organization, a department, a team and an individual go through. All of which must be gone through during change. Where do we currently stand? It is important for the leaders to be the first to go through this turn.
The CIP abbreviation stands for “Continuous Improvement Process”. This is a basic principle of quality management. CIP also refers to the entrepreneurial goal of constantly improving the organizational structures and processes in the company with the help of step-by-step optimization.
Conflict types in projects
Objectives of different units of an organization cannot be reconciled
Change processes are a cause of uncertainty and fears arise when the meaning of a change is not comprehensible also arise when changes are subsequently experienced as uncontrollable
3 types of authority: a) Official authority (position-bound) b) Professional authority (knowledge-bound) c) Personal authority (person-bound, charisma)
Conflicts occurs when contradictions arise between species
Role expectations for a particular position, which are translated into concrete role behavior and internalized.
Occur when the expectations of two or more roles (for example Mother and Scrum Master) cannot be reconciled by a single person (Inter Role Conflict)
Classic in project management: Intra role conflict (it is impossible to fully meet the expectations of all stakeholders (customers, suppliers, employees, etc.)).
DMAIC (Phases) is the main process of Six Sigma and represents the process sequence of process optimization and is at the same time also a quality goal. Each phase has several steps that have an influence on the quality goal. The individual initial letters stand for:1. “D”= Define- The Define phase covers the description of the problems and their priority for solution for the company, as well as the establishment of the team for optimization. The project is detailed planned and problem areas are identified. 2. “M” = Measure- Measure phase – Measure phase is used to specify the extent of the problems and how to achieve the targets for improvement through appropriate measurement systems. It is used to prepare the implementation of a problem by target-actual comparison ;3. “A” = Analyze- Analyze phase tries to review the Six Sigma method and measurement systems and find out the main cause of the problem. It is used to find the solution of the problem and achieve the targeted state. 4. “I” = Improve – The improvement phase is used to find out if a solution can be developed and to achieve the project goal through appropriate practical measures. 5. “C” = Control The control phase serves to ensure sustainability, whereby the measures developed are checked in order to guarantee permanent solutions.
DoE Design of Experiments
Statistical design of experiments includes all statistical procedures that should be applied before starting the experiment.
End to End Prozess
End to End Process means the process in a company that starts with the customer or that the customer initiates and ends with.
Five Lean Management Principles
- Value -> Who is the customer and what has added value for the customer?
- Value stream -> What activities are there to meet the customer’s needs?
- Flow -> How can a continuous flow without errors and interruptions be enabled?
- Pull -> Alignment with a demand-driven supply of components / results.
- Perfection -> How do we make improvement sustainable? What can we improve next?
FMEA- Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
FMEA – Failure Mode and Effects Analysis – is a method for analyzing fault risks. The aim of this method is to identify, understand, limit and eliminate potential weaknesses and risks and thus to prevent errors.
Framework conditions for Six Sigma projects
The runtime of Six Sigma projects has a maximum time of 6 months, it requires an existing problem with unknown cause / solution and an improvement of min. 30% should be achieved. Furthermore, the phrase “Six Sigma must cost nothing” means that a relatively short payback period (e.g. < 1 year) is characteristic.
The Ishikawa diagram, or cause-effect diagram, is the representation of causes that lead to or significantly influence an outcome.
The Johari Window is a communication model by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham that visualizes the differences between self-perception and perception by others. The window is divided into four quadrants: “Public Person”, “Blind Spot”, “Unknown” and “My Secret”.
In order to initiate a learning process we have to try to recognize the blind spot, which we cannot recognize ourselves, through permanent feedback from others and to improve ourselves.
Kanban comes from the Japanese and is constituted from the syllables “KAN” and “BAN”, that means like”signal card”. Kanban is a method of the production process control and is now one of the agile methods. It is used to improve productivity and quality of the final product. Toyota developed the system for itself in 1947 to avoid bottlenecks and at the same time to have a too high stock of production materials. In 2007, David Anderson transferred the method to the IT industry and found application in software development. Due to the integration of the method in various industries, Kanban is also known as the “pull method”. The Kanban method can be used in both Scrum and non-Scrum teams.
Maki Gami comes from the Japanese and means rolled (Maki) paper (Gami). Maki Gami is a form for process flow analysis. On this paper roll, the company processes are recorded in the individual process steps and visualized on a time axis as a flow chart with all interfaces.
Minitab is a statistical software that can be used to analyze statistical data and display them in various diagrams.
Muda comes from Japanese and means a waste or pointless activity. In agile working, it is important to eliminate such time wasters or less efficient activities in order to work in a value-adding, productive and motivated manner.
The risk analysis includes all activities for the assessment, evaluation and priorities of the risks (incl. opportunities) in the project. It thus provides the starting point for all further steps in planning and evaluating measures as well as for risk monitoring in the project.
The SIPOC method (stands for Suppliers, Inputs, Processes, Outputs, Customers) provides a way to map to higher-level processes and relationships, helps narrow the scope of the project, and creates a common understanding.
High level process representation.
Common understanding of the team about the process under investigation
Process-oriented definition of the project scope, clear delimitation of what is not included in the project scope.
Verification if defined metric is plausible
Six Sigma is a comprehensive strategy for the faster improvement of processes, products and services (achieving breakthroughs) combined with a system for measuring the efficiency of measuring the efficiency of procedures, eliminating mistakes and and variances in processes, products and services with the aim of services with the aim of increasing yield. – according to ASQ
Six Sigma Board
The Six Sigma Board allows each team member to plan tasks for the entire week, efficiently share information within the team, and generate quick coordination. A checklist simplifies the process. After the awareness for the managers, Six Sigma Boards should be introduced organization-wide in the groups. These serve to lead the teams and to accompany the change. Typical challenges for teams can be addressed at the board meeting.
The Greek letter σ (sigma) describes in stochastics the standard deviation of the normal distribution around the mean value. The smaller the standard deviation, the smaller the risk that values of a characteristic are outside the tolerance limits. – The Gaussian distribution (normal distribution) can be set up using two basic stochastic measures. The expected value (mean) μ (mi) and the standard deviation (sigma) σ. – The standard deviation is a stochastic term introduced around 1860 and is a measure of the dispersion of the values of the random variables around their expected value.
A Swimlane diagram is a visual diagram that explains how a single recurring work activity is performed and by whom. Ordering new stock, dealing with a customer complaint, sending a late payment notice, or hiring a new department manager are all examples of jobs for which you can create Swimlane diagrams.
The working hours of a Bsix Sigma Black Belt or Six Sigma Green Belt must be designed as efficiently as possible.
To achieve this, an assessment of the current situation must be carried out, the objectives clarified and the most suitable conditions created.
These requirements should be created:
– More work than time (time management only manages the shortage). – – – – Being open to new ideas
– Honesty with regard to the actual situation
Value Stream Map oder Value Stream Mapping(VSM)
Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is a common practice in lean management for optimizing value creation and minimizing waste.